- Перепишите следующие предложения. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием -s и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно:
а) показателем 3-го лица единственного числа глагола в Present Indefinite;
- b) признаком множественного числа имени существительного;
- c) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного.
Переведите предложения на русский язык.
- Most high schools have their own student’s hostels.
- The course of studies usually lasts 5-6 years.
- Students work at the university’s well-equipped laboratories.
- Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения, и переведите их на русский язык.
- Moscow University is the largest University in Europe.
- Strength of materials is more difficult than chemistry.
- The stronger the wind the harder the conditions of work for weather observers.
3.Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод неопределённых и отрицательных местоимений.
- Have you got any questions?
- Nothing interesting happened while I was away.
- We have something to help you.
- Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видо-временные формы глаголов и укажите их инфинитив; переведите предложения на русский язык.
- In a few days she will leave for Moscow.
- Have you received my letter?
- Students like to take part in mathematical competitions.
- Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения слов it, that, one.
- It is necessary to obtain accurate data on the possibility of living and working in space.
- One must take part in scientific work.
- It is hydrogen that will be the main source of energy in the car of the future.
- Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол и его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
- Ships can communicate over long distances due to the radio.
- In the next few years engineers are to develop computers of more than one billions operations a second.
- These new materials had to withstand much higher temperatures than metals.
- Прочитайте и переведите текст. Письменный перевод 2,3,4 абзацев.
Higher Education in Russia
The new academic year has begun. Entrance examinations are over in the 894 higher schools of this country. More than a million new students were enroled into universities and institutes.
About 60 per cent of them entered technological institutes. In the last several years the number of students in technological institutes has risen by more than one million bringing the total enrolment to almost three million. This means that young people are interested in the specialities connected with new branches of science and technology. At present engineers and technical specialists constitute 40 percent of graduates from institutes of higher learning while humanities, the natural sciences and pedagogy account for 45 per cent.
The present academic year is marked by expansion of new forms of technical specialization. Specialization plays a major part in planning the curricula. Usually specialization begins in the third year. The first- and second-year students study general engineering subjects such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, mechanics, strength of materials, elements of machines, drawing as well as computer engineering, a foreign language and a number of others.
The main feature of the educational system in this country is that it is accessible and free of charge for all. But education is free of charge only for the students but not for the state. The state spends large sums on higher education. About 75 per cent of the students receive state grants and 10 per cent get allowances from enterprises which sponsored their applications.
Most higher schools have their own students’ hostels and some of them have large and excellent sports centers.
Education plays an important part in the life of any country as it provides the country with highly-qualified specialists for its further development and progress. Top priority is given to improving the standards of higher education — especially in science and technology. At the same time institutes of technology will develop into universities of technology and devote many more hours to the humanities.
The higher school today considers education not only as a collection of useful facts and theories but also as the process which trains a person to analyse and interrelate various ideas as well as make decisions.
Today’s young people will be the specialists of tomorrow in the society with new technology. Their qualification will determine the scientific and technological progress of the country. Besides, specialists in all fields should have a general education to supplement their specialized knowledge and thereby enable them to use it most effectively.
- Прочитайте и сделайте полный перевод текста.
Number names were among the first words used when people began to talk, but it has taken thousands of years for people to learn how to use numbers or the written figures which we call «numerals».
In early days people often counted on a scale of three or four instead of ten and sometimes other number scales were used. Later they found it more convenient to count by tens, using the fingers of both hands. We still use this «scale» in counting; that is, we count to ten; then to ten tens; then to ten times ten tens; and so on.
When people first began to use numbers they knew only one way to work with them; that was to count. Later they found out how to add, subtract, and multiply. They invented special devices to make computations easier, especially in dealing with large numbers.
Division was not often needed in ancient times in comparison with multiplication, and it is far more rarely employed than addition and subtraction at the present time.
Besides the decimal number system which we commonly use there are other systems of numeration such as the binary, octal, etc. In the number systems we use digits. The Latin word digital means «fingers».
In ancient times it was very difficult to use fractions because they did not know any easy way of writing them. Decimal fractions were introduced in the 16th century and are now much more commonly used than common fractions.