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Задание 1 Прочтите текст и переведите письменно выделенный отрывок

 

НЕ OF ALEXANDRIA

 

About sixty years after the death of Archimedes, Hero of Alexandria was born. Nobody knows the exact date of his birth, but according to the best authorities, he lived about 150 В. С. In addition to being a great mathematician, he invented the siphon, the gear-wheel, the pump, the water clock and the steam engine.

His book on mechanics translated into Arabic, was carefully studied by mechanics and engineers of the sixteenth century. In this remarkable book Hero lists and describes five simple ways by which an unusually heavy weight may be lifted and moved with minimum effort. These five principles form the basis of all the machinery in the world today. But though described in detail by Hero, their practical application to machinery did not come about for more than a thousand years. They are: the lever, the wheel and axle, the pulley, the wedge, the screw.

         While it is true that the invention of the screw is attributed to Archimedes and the wedge and the lever were known long before Hero’s time, he was the man, who showed for the first time that all machinery is based on these five important principles, and how to apply these principles to machinery — such as it was in these early times.

Neither he nor anyone else of his time realized the importance of these inventions. Hero’s book on pneumatics, which was translated into Italian in 1549 and later into English, described more than seventy totally useless inventions, most of which embody important basic principles.

Their main function was to entertain. The siphon, that is essential to modern plumbing and sanitation, Hero saw as a sort of toy. Nineteen centuries later Robert Fulton would employ the power of steam for locomotion, but Hero used it to make a hissing sound of a rattlesnake. He discovered the pump, so vital to our civilization, but he used it only as a toy. Hero applied it for the automatic pumping of an organ where the air was supplied by wheel turning in the wind. The importance of pumps in industry was not realized until the middle of the sixteenth century, sixteen hundred years after the deathof the inventor. Among his other inventions we find a slot machine placed in the temple for different purposes and some other inventions of this kind. It is doubtful whether any other inventors in history applied so many world-shaking ideas to what would appear to us as entertainments. But all this was in keeping with Greek reverence for philosophy and scientific theory and indifference to practical application.

 

Задание 2.   Запишите номера предложений в порядке, соответствующем содержанию текста

  1. Ancient Greeks loved scientific theory but were not interested in scientific application. That’s why Hero’s inventions were
  2. Practical application of these five principles to machinery came about more than a thousand years later.
  3. Hero also showed for the first time that all machinery is based on these principles.
  4. Hero’s book on pneumatics described more than seventy of his totally useless inventions.
  5. The five principles, described by Hero, are the lever, the wheel and axle, the pulley, the wedge, the screw.
  6. In his book on mechanics, Hero listed and described the five basic principles of mechanics.
  7. Neither Hero nor his contemporaries realized the importance of his inventions.

 

Задание 3   Переведите названия приспособлений и определите их функции

the pulley     the wedge      the screw     the lever     the wheel and axle

 

  • to join different parts together (соединять разные детали)

to lift and move heavy weights (поднимать и перемещать тяжести)

  • to cut hard materials (разрезать твердые материалы)
  • to measure and weigh thing (измерять и взвешивать вещи)

 

 

 

Задание4. Распределите слова по отраслям согласно таблице. Некоторыесловамогутотноситьсякнесколькимотраслям

 

chemicals

solution

input

division experiment

plant

program

subtraction

mouse

virus

liquid

root

drive

test

memory

addition

earth

acid

tube

leaf

equation

network

habitat

 

 

 

Задание 5.   Термины из задания 4 используются в повседневном общении. Заполните пробелы и переведите предложения

 

1       What is your favourite program on radio?

2       According to the network the conference starts on Monday.

3       They went for a drive along the coast.

4       Doctors all over the world are working to prevent the spread of virus infections.

5       As the input of energy increases, the volume gets louder.

6       The boy was as quiet as a mouse.

7       We use a mouse for moving cursor.

8       What is the capacity of your hard memory?

9       Today there are more computer programs than there are words in the English language.

10     Se’s got a good memory for faces.

 

Задание6 Соедините начало предложений с их окончанием, запишите и переведите предложения.

1. The progress of motor cars

2. Many of the cars broke for the transmissions

3. Multi-cylinder engines

4. The most famous of these acts

5. Cugnot built a steam-driven engine which

6. There was a great need for the engine that

7. The problem of a more efficient engine

8. The cars of that time

A. came into use.

B. could quickly be started and stopped.

C. were very small, two-seated cars with no roof.

D. met the great opposition in Great Britain.

E. was solved by the invention of the internal combustion engine.

F. was the Red Flag Act of 1865.

G. were still unreliable and constantly gave trouble.

H. ran at maximum speed of four miles.

 

Внимание!

Перед выполнением задания 7 изучите раздел грамматики на стр. 121-128 пособия

 

Задание 7. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на инфинитив, герундий, причастия I и II

А) 1. A molecule is a compound consisting of two or more atoms.

  1. Combining hydrogen with oxygen in the proportion of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen we produce water.
  2. When speaking about oxygen it is necessary to say that it is a colourless, odourless gas having density at standard pressure and temperature of about one seven-hundredth that of water. It is soluble in water becoming liquid at about 180.
  3. The solution of the problem required concentrated efforts of many scientists.
  4. The data required were analysedin our laboratory.
  5. When required, the data will be applied in our practical work.

Б)1. Thank you for (to come) to see us.

  1. Excuse me for (to break) your favourite vase.
  2. You never mentioned (to be) in Greece.
  3. I don’t remember ever (to meet) your sister.
  4. He was never tired of (to look) at his wife.
  5. Her hair needed (to brush).
  6. I don’t remember (to ask) this question.
  7. She hesitated before (to kiss) her daughter good-bye.
  8. He was ashamed of (to lose) his temper.
  9. There is no point in (to raise) this question now.
  10. No one likes (to make) to look a perfect fool.
  11. You couldn’t look at her without (to strike) by her modesty.
  12. I hate (to bother) with silly questions.
  13. He confessed to (to forget) that he was to come on Friday.
  14. Going to the party was no use: he had no talent for (to dance).
  15. These clothes want (to wash).

В) 1.To produce changes in’ physical state a considerable amount of thermal energy must be supplied to metal.

  1. A very good practice is to introduce the best scientific inventions into industry.
  2. Toughness is the ability of a material to absorb mechanical energy by permanent deformation without breakage.
  3. Steam engines were the first to be tried in aeroplanes but they were too heavy to be of any real use.
  4. Steel is the metal to be formed from iron with a definite amount of carbon.
  5. If steel is heated above critical temperature, it becomes softer and much easier to be machined.
  6. This alloy is not tough enough to be used in this process.
  7. There is a large number of metals.

 

Г)People living in Japan have some customs different from ours. For example, we wipe our washed faces with dry towels; they wipe their faces with wet towels. Entering houses our men take off their hats, the Japanese take off their shoes. We give presents when arriving, they leave them when departing. When in mourning we wear black, they wear white. We frown when being scolded, they smile.

When we say that Japanese are strange people, they could reply, “The same to you.”

Задание 8. Прочтите текст, вставьте слова из таблицы в пробелы по смыслу, изменив их при необходимости

attachments                     e-mail messages              sound file                       text file

modem            open attachments               e-mail address                e-mail program

access (the Internet)               computer                  image file                Internet

Internet Service Provider                               download (e-mail message)

 

 

 

Cindy Lewis is a journalist. She works for Gender, a weekly magazine on the (1) Internet. Cindy writes the problem page for the magazine. Cindy has two young children so she doesn’t work in the magazine office every day, she works at home using her (2) computer.

Every morning she checks her (3) e-mail messages. She switches on her computer and her (4)modem. She starts Outlook Express. This is the (5) e-mail program which Cindy uses. She (6) downloads her e-mail messages. She usually receives about 35 messages every day.

Most of the messages come from the Gender office, but she also gets messages from friends and colleagues around the world. They send messages to her (7) e-mail address. Sometimes they just send messages with (8) attachments. Some friends send longer pieces of writing in a (9) text file, or photographs in an (10) image file, or even music in a (11) sound file. Cindy can (12) open attachments these and see the texts, pictures or listen to the recordings.

Cindy’s e-mail address is cindylewis@demon.co.uk. Demon is a company which Cindy uses to (13) access her e-mail and the Internet. DemonisanISP, an (14) Internet Service Provider.

 

Задание 9. Выпишите и переведите выделенные слова и словосочетания

Engineering is a science which deals with design, construction and operation of structures, machines, engines and other devices used in industry and everyday life.» That there is no single meaning of this word makes it sometimes difficult to find the proper Russian equivalents at once. The most widely used ones are: техника, строительство, машиностроение, инженерное дело.

Mechanical engineering

It is well known that with the invention of the steam engine and the growth of factories a number of civil engineers became interested in the practical application of the science of mechanics and thermodynamics to the design of machines. The result was that they separated themselves from civil engineering and called themselves «mechanical engineers”. It was that trend that laid the foundation for a new branch of one that was called mechanical engineering.

At present mechanical engineering occupies a prominent position among modern production processes. It is-mechanical engineering that deals with the design and construction of steam engines, turbines, air-conditioning and refrigeration devices. Conveyors, escalators and elevators are also designed by mechanical engineers. And again, it is the mechanical engineer that designs machine-tools for various operations and it is he who applies these machine-tools in various production processes.

One must know, too, that aeronautics is also one of the many branches of mechanical engineering, the one that deals with the mechanics of moving bodies in fluid or air.

 

deal with –заниматься; иметь дело с чем-л.

engine — двигатель

device —  прибор

meaning – значение

widely used- широко используются

Mechanical engineering – машиностроение

invention — изобретение

steam engine – паровой двигатель

application — применение

laid the foundation – положить начало

occupy – занимать

prominent – видный; выдающийся

machine-tools — станки

fluid — жидкость

 

 

Задание 10. Напишите сочинение-эссе (800 -1000 знаков), в котором вы высказываете свои мысли на тему:

Scientific and technological breakthroughs have brought great benefits. You only have to look around own home to see                                                       

Have our lives always been improved by using home machines and devices, however? Have we become too passive? Are we too dependent on technology? How dangerous could it be? Take, for example, television/computer games/the Internet                        

 

 

Scientific and technological progress has brought numerous advantages to the humanity. Firstly, many scientific and technological achievements are used in our daily lives and are making our lives more convenient. Technology has automated many of the critical processes in the household.

The computer technology has changed the face of the world. Computers can store, organize and manage huge amounts of data, process large amounts of information.

However, one must admit that we have become more passive and sometimes too dependent on the technology. Another disadvantage is that technology can be dangerous. Take, the Internet or computer games, for example.  They can harm people not just bring benefits. The lack of physical activity or hacker attacks, computer addiction or even mental disorder are to the main risks of overusing the technological advances.

In conclusion, I can say that scientific and technological advances really make our lives easier. However, we should not be addicted to them.

 

Задание 11   Напишите аннотацию (не более 500 знаков) к тексту

Tractor is powerful low-speed traction vehicle and power unit mechanically similar to the automobile or truck but designed for use off the road. The two main types are: wheeled (which is the earliest form) and caterpillar tractors. Tractors are used in agriculture, construction, road building and other works in the form of bulldozers, scrapers and excavators. A notable feature of tractors is power takeoff accessory, used to operate stationary or draw machinery or implements.

The first tractors grow out of stationary and portable steam engines operated at farms in the late 19th century; they were used to haul plows by the 1890s. In 1892 ablacksmithJohn Froelich built the first farm vehicle powered by a gasoline engine. The first commercially successful manufacturers were Hart and Parr from CharlesCity, Iowa. By the World War I the tractor was well established; the American Holt tractor was the inspiration and base for the tanks.

Belt and power takeoffs, incorporated in early tractors, were standardized first in the rear-mounted, transmission-derived power takeoff, and later in the independent (live-power) takeoff, which permitted operation of implements at a constant speed regardless of the vehicular speed. Many modern tractors also have a hydraulic-power takeoff system operated by an oil pump, mounted on the tractor or on the trailer.

Most modern tractors are powered by internal combustion engines running on gasoline, kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and diesel fuel. Power is transmitted through a propeller shaft to a gearbox having 8 or 10 speeds, and through a differential gear to the two large rear-drive wheels. The engine may have from 12 to more then 120 horsepower. Until 1932, when oversize pneumatic rubber tires with deep treads were introduced, all wheel-type farm tractors had steel tires with tapering lugs to engage the ground and provide traction.

Crawler, caterpillar or track-laying tractors run on two continuous tracks consisting of a number of plates (pads) pivoted together and joined to form a pair of endless chains, each encircling two wheels on either side of the vehicle. These tractors provide better adhesion and lower ground pressure that the wheeled tractors do. Crawler tractors may be used on heavy, sticky soil or on very light soil that provides poor grip for wheels. The main chassis usually consists of a welded steel hull containing the engine and transmission. Tractors used on ground of irregular contours have tracks mounted so that their left and right front ends go up and down independently.

Four-wheel drive tractors can be used under various soil conditions. Because of their complicated construction and high cost their use grows slower.

The single-axle tractor is a small machine carried on a pair of wheels fixed on a single-drive axle; the operator usually walks behind, gripping the pair of handles. The engine is in front of the axle, and the tools are on the bar behind. This type of machine may be used with a considerable set of equipment, including plows, hoes, cultivators, mowers and two-wheeled trailers. When the tractor is coupled with the trailer the operator rides.

 

Abstract

The text under discussion deals with tractors as powerful low-speed traction vehicles and power units designed for use off the road.

The author starts by telling the reader about the first tractors which grow out of stationary and portable steam engines.

It is spoken in detail about modern tractors which are reported to have a hydraulic-power takeoff system operated by an oil pump and which are powered by internal combustion engines running on gasoline, kerosene, liquid petroleum gas and diesel fuel.

The working mechanisms of crawler, caterpillar or track-laying tractors as well as four-wheel drive tractors and single-axle tractors are described. The conditions of their work are explained.